From 1G to 5G: Evolution of telecommunication networks
Telecommunications networks have undergone significant development over time. First-generation 1G communication standards were characterised by low data rates, while now 5G offers unprecedented broadband.
In this article, we look at the evolution of telecommunication networks from 1G to 5G, including the features of each generation.
1G, or How the mobile telephony era began
The first-generation connectivity standard appeared in 1980 and allowed only voice calls over short distances.
1G technology operated at a frequency of 800 MHz and provided data transmission speed of only 2.4 Kbps. Despite this, 1G is an important milestone in the development of telecommunications networks.
Continued evolution in 2G
The second generation of the communications standard appeared in 1991: this was the first digital technology that allowed not only voice calls but also SMS.
2G operates in the 900 MHz band with data rates of up to 64 Kbps. This communication standard gave rise to GSM and CDMA, which are still in use in some parts of the world today.
Third generation telecommunication networks capabilities
The 3G standard was introduced in 2001 and enabled data transmission at higher speeds than 2G. 3G technology operates in the 2.1 GHz band and has a bandwidth of up to 2 Mbps.
3G gave mobile operators the ability to offer a wider range of services such as multimedia messaging, video calls, and internet access on mobile devices.
Unlimited possibilities: introduction of 4G and LTE technology
4G, also known as LTE, was introduced in 2009 and offered higher data speeds, a wider range of services, and reliable connectivity.
4G operates in the 2.6 GHz frequency band and provides bandwidth of up to 100 Mbps. With this technology, mobile operators can provide users with services previously unavailable, such as HD streaming video, online gaming, VR, and more.
Embracing the Future: how 5G is changing our lives
The 5G communications standard is launched in 2019 and promises to revolutionise the world of telecommunication networks.
5G operates in bands from 24 to 100 GHz and offers speeds of up to 10 Gbit/sec. In addition, the technology guarantees lower data latency, higher speeds, and reliable connectivity.
Although many companies are still just beginning to develop and implement 5G, work on the sixth generation - 6G - has already begun.